KRITIK TERHADAP QIRA’AH AL-QUR’AN PERSPEKTIF ORIENTALIS

Authors

  • Rudi Wahyudi STIQ Ar-Rahman

Keywords:

Qiraah, orientalism, critics, Goldziher

Abstract

On the orientalist perspective such as Mingana, Nӧldeke, dan Goldziher many qiraah types that exists today is a sign of many contradiction in the Quran.  It means the authenticity of the Quran, today, is very doubtful.  On their perspective, the cause of the qiraah differencies is simplicity of Arabic writing which its letters, at that time, is empty from diacritics and letter marks.  It makes everyone read Quran according to their own perceptions.  This orientalist perspective is clearly contrary to the Muslim perspective, where the writings is not the only source of Quran recitation.  There is another source of recitation which is more important than the writings, riwāyahRiwayah is a way to convey a news to the other from the memory, not from the text.  For the illiterate people, to memorize every important things and its transmission (sanad) is more important than to write it down.  The orientalists, in many cases, failed to understand the culture because they stands besides the people as observer not participant.  They uses their own glasess to capture the phenomena ahead.  This such a perspective would produce a lot of distortion and a-history’s view.

References

‘Abd al-Fattāḥ al-Qāḍī, al-Qirā’āt fi Naḍar al-Musytasyriqīn wa al-Mulḥidīn, (Madinah: Madinah University, t.th)

‘Abd al-Lathif al-Khathib, Mu’jam a-Qira’at, (Damaskus: Dar Sa’duddin, t.th)

A’ḍami, M.M. (2003). The History of The Quranic Text : from Revealation to Compilaton. Leicester: UK Islamic Academy, cet. Ke-1

Abu ‘Abdillah al-Husain bin Ahmad Khalawaih, Kitab al-Qira’at as-Syadzah, (Mesir: Mathba’ah ar-Rahmaniah, 1934)

Abu al-Qasim Muhammad binn ‘Amr az-Zamakhsyari, al-Kasyaf ‘an Haqa’iq Ghawamidh at-Tanzil, (Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-‘Arabi, 2010)

Abu Hayyan Muhammad bin Yusuf al-Andalusi, al-Bahr al-Muhith fi at-Tafsir, (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 2009)

Abu Manshur Muhammad bin Ahmad al-Azhari, Kitab Ma’ani al-Qira’at, (Riyadh: Markaz al-Buhuts Jami’at al-Malik Su’ud, 1991)

Abu Sa’id ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr al-Baidhawi, Anwar at-Tanzil wa Asrar at-Ta’wil, (Beirut: Dar Ihya at-Turats al-‘Arabi, 2008)

Abu Zar’ah ‘Abd ar-Rahman bin Muhammad bin Zanjalah, Hujjah al-Qira’at, (Beirut: Mu’assasah ar-Risalah, 1997)

Aḋ-Ḋahabi, Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Uṡmān. (1997). Ṭabaqāt al-Qurrā’,. Riyāḍ: King Faiṣal Center for Reseach and Islamic Studies.

Ahmad Faṭoni dalam wawancara di IIQ Jakarta,Tanggal 01 Desember 2014

Ahmad Faṭoni, “Keterkaitan Ragam Qiraat dengan Rasm Uṡmani serta Implikasinya terhadap Penerbitan Muṣhaf dan Penafsiran Al-Qur’an,” Disertasi, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, Tahun 2008

Al-Bukhāri, Muhammad bin Isma’īl. (2001). Ṣahīh al-Bukhāri. Beirut: Dār aṭ-Ṭauq an-Najāḥ, Juz. 4.

Al-Qāḍī, ‘Abd al-Fattāḥ. (t.th). al-Qirā’āt fi Naḍar al-Musytasyriqīn wa al-Mulḥidīn. Madinah: Madinah University.

Bariqi, S. (2018). “Pengaruh Theodore Nӧldeke dalam Sejarah Studi Sejarah Al-Qur’an di Indonesia”. Jurnal Ṣuḥuf, Vol. 11, No. 2.

Edward W. Said, Orientalism, (New York: Vintage Book. 1979), cet. Ke-1

Fahmi Zarkasyi, Tradisi Orientalisme dan Framework Studi Al-Qur’an, dalam Jurnal Tsaqafah, Vol. 7, No. 1 Tahun 2011

Faṭoni, A. (2008). “Keterkaitan Ragam Qiraat dengan Rasm Uṡmani serta Implikasinya terhadap Penerbitan Muṣhaf dan Penafsiran Al-Qur’an,” Disertasi, UIN Syarif Hidayatullah.

Faṭoni, A. dalam wawancara di IIQ Jakarta, Tanggal 01 Desember 2014

Goldziher, I. (Terj). (1995). Maḋāhib at-Tafsīr al-Islāmi. Kairo: Maṭba’ah as-Sunnah

Ignác Goldziher (Terj), Maḋāhib at-Tafsīr al-Islāmi, (Kairo: Maṭba’ah as-Sunnah, 1955)

Jabal, M.H. (2002). ar-Radd ‘ala Goldziher fi Maṭā’inih ‘ala al-Qirā’āt al-Qur’āniyah. Kairo: al-Azhār University, cet. Ke-2,

Jamal ad-Din Muhammad Syaraf (ed), Mushaf Dar as-Shahabah fi al-Qir’aat al-‘Asyrah al-Mutawatirah min Qira’at as-Syathibiyah wa ad-Durrah, (Thantha: Dar as-Shahabah, 2004)

Morteza Karimi-Nia, the Historiography of the Qur’an in the Muslim World: the Influence of Theodore Nӧldeke, dalam Jurnal of Quranic Studies, Vol. 15, No. 1 Tahun 2013.

Muhammad ‘Abd al-Azhim az-Zarqani, Manahil al-Irfan fi ‘Ulum al-Qur’an, (Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-‘Arabi, 1995)

Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Uṡmān aḋ-Ḋahabi, Ṭabaqāt al-Qurrā’, (Riyāḍ: King Faiṣal Center for Reseach and Islamic Studies, 1997)

Muhammad bin Isma’īl al-Bukhāri, Ṣahīh al-Bukhāri, (Beirut: Dār aṭ-Ṭauq an-Najāḥ, 2001)

Muhammad Ḥasan Ḥasan Jabal, ar-Radd ‘ala Goldziher fi Maṭā’inih ‘ala al-Qirā’āt al-Qur’āniyah, (Kairo: al-Azhār University, 2002), cet. Ke-2,

Muhammad Muṣṭofa A’ḍami, The History of The Quranic Text : from Revealation to Compilaton, (Leicester: UK Islamic Academy, 2003)

Muhammad Nabhan bin Husain al-Mishri, al-Busyra fi Taysir al-Qira’at al-‘Asyr al-Kubra, (quraat.net, 2013)

Nia, Morteza Karimi. (2013). “The Historiography of the Qur’an in the Muslim World: the Influence of Theodore Nӧldeke. Jurnal of Quranic Studies, Vol. 15, No. 1.

Said, E.W. (1979). Orientalism. New York: Vintage Book. 1979), cet. Ke-1

Sirajuddin Bariqi, Pengaruh Theodore Nӧldeke dalam Sejarah Studi Sejarah Al-Qur’an di Indonesia, dalam Jurnal Ṣuḥuf, Vol. 11, No. 2 Tahun 2018

Syihabuddin Mahmud bin ‘Abdullah a-Alusi, Ruh al-Ma’ani, (Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyah, 1995)

Thomas Wright, Early Christianity in Arabia: a Historical Essay, (New Jersey: Theological Seminary Princeton, t.th)

Wright, T. (t.th). Early Christianity in Arabia: a Historical Essay, . New Jersey: Theological Seminary Princeton.

Zarkasyi, F. (2011). “Tradisi Orientalisme dan Framework Studi Al-Qur’an”. Jurnal Tsaqafah, Vol. 7, No. 1

Downloads

Published

2021-10-30

How to Cite

Wahyudi, R. (2021). KRITIK TERHADAP QIRA’AH AL-QUR’AN PERSPEKTIF ORIENTALIS. TAFAKKUR : Jurnal Ilmu Al-Qur’an Dan Tafsir, 2(1), 49-62. Retrieved from http://e-jurnal.stiqarrahman.ac.id/index.php/tafakkur/article/view/49